Mr Xi also reciprocated Mr Trump's words, saying the summit had "uniquely important significance".
As the two leaders wrapped up a Florida summit overshadowed by US missile strikes in Syria overnight, Xi joined Trump in papering over, at least in public, deep differences over issues ranging from trade to North Korea.
"We have made tremendous progress in our relationship with China", Trump said effusively at the close of a high-stakes but studiously familiar first meeting between the pair at his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida.
Asked if the strikes would impact planned discussions between Trump and Xi, a Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson said, "I will not get ahead of their talks and predict how they are going to prioritize their topics, but I believe they will exchange views on bilateral relations, global and regional issues of common interest and what they think are important and urgent".
Trump promised during the campaign to stop what he called the theft of American jobs by China and to rebuild the country's manufacturing base.
Trump administration National Security Adviser Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster said North Korea has created a "pattern of provocative behavior".
A day before the two-day summit between the leaders of the world's two most powerful economies, which ended Friday, Pyongyang launched its fourth missile test of the year, in what appeared to be part of an effort to develop a nuclear-tipped missile that could strike the USA mainland.
Tensions between the U.S. and North Korea continue to escalate as United States officials consider the best way forward.
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"(We) are prepared to chart our own course if this is something China is just unable to coordinate with us", said Tillerson.
"There is a real commitment to work together to see if this can not be resolved in a peaceful way", said Tillerson.
"We would like to see more results-oriented outcomes coming out of these new dialogues and fewer laundry lists", said Beijing-based Jacob Parker, vice president of China operations at the U.S.
The US president joked before dinner: "We've had a long discussion already, and so far I have gotten nothing, absolutely nothing".
"That is not our objective and so the whole reasons underlying the development of a nuclear program in North Korea are simply not credible", Tillerson told the ABC program "This Week". Having gotten through the talks without making any major, specific commitments, the Chinese president would seem to have won some ground - or at least some wiggle room - in the Trump talks. State Secretary Tillerson warned the increasingly belligerent North Korean government that military options were on the table if they continued expanding their nuclear weapons program.
North Korea denounced Thursday's attack as an act of "intolerable aggression" and one that justified "a million times over" the North's push toward a credible nuclear deterrent.
China is North Korea's economic lifeline and as such enjoys more leverage over its maverick neighbour than any other country. It was the first direct US assault on the Russian-backed government of Bashar al-Assad in six years of civil war.
Trump informed Xi of the strike as they were dining, roughly when 59 Tomahawk missiles were hitting a Syrian airfield.